FIN DE LOS “PAGARÉS EN BLANCO”

El pagaré fue en origen una manera de sortear la prohibición de viajar con dinero en efectivo, igual que la letra de cambio. El éxito del pagaré se explica por la preferencia de los crédito garantizados, y garantizados de modo seguro, incondicionado y ejecutivo, respecto aquellos otros créditos carentes de estos privilegios.

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Photo by: David Roseborough

Ha existido, con notable arraigo, una práctica bancaria consistente en que una póliza –de préstamo o crédito– sea vinculada a un pagaré en el que no aparece la cifra debida, sino que se deja un espacio en blanco. Para el caso que se impaguen amortizaciones de la póliza y ésta se dé por vencida anticipadamente, la Entidad cumplimentará el pagaré con la cifra debida en concepto de principal inamortizado, intereses y costas. Así las cosas, el acreedor, subrogándose facultades del deudor y al margen de las vicisitudes de la póliza, completará un documento ejecutivo autónomo que le es íntegramente favorable.

La sentencia de la Sala Primera del Tribunal Supremo, de 12/09/2014 (Rec. 1460/2013), ha puesto coto a dicha práctica, al menos cuando los deudores son consumidores y usuarios. Buena prueba de que dicha práctica era aceptada hasta dicho momento, es que desestimaron la denominada “oposición cambiaria” el Juzgado de Primera Instancia y la Audiencia Provincial de Valencia –así como la SAP de Alicante (Sección 4ª) de 29 de noviembre de 2013; SAP de Barcelona (Sección 16ª) de 24 de octubre de 2013; SAP de Zaragoza (Sección 5ª) de 24 de septiembre de 2013, entre otras–, oposición que el TS finalmente conceptúa procedente, censurando que la Entidad pueda subrogarse en facultades del deudor consumidor y que aproveche el privilegio de ejecutividad de documentos creados por ella misma de forma unilateral.

Los principales argumentos que da el Tribunal Supremo, son los siguientes: (i) que un documento privado (póliza de préstamo o crédito, contrato principal de pagaré) no puede tener ejecutividad, sin que valga crear documentos accesorios de garantía desprovistos de regularidad, (ii) que no se puede substraer el contrato principal (la antedicha póliza) y sus posibles abusividades del control jurisdiccional, (iii) que el desconocimiento del deudor de los términos de la liquidación realizada por el acreedor, para la fijación del importe reclamable (máxime por no ser fruto de simples operaciones aritméticas), impide que preste el consentimiento informadamente, y (iv) que el acceso del acreedor a un procedimiento privilegiado, no puede admitirse cuando faltan los requisitos substantivos al efecto.

Es lo cierto que la base del problema es la inadecuación de las obligaciones de pólizas o contratos de préstamo o crédito, a esta clase de garantías cambiarias. En efecto, esta clase de garantías no permite asegurar un máximo (como en la hipoteca, una responsabilidad máxima), pudiendo reclamar tan sólo una parte de la cantidad ejecutable. Las Entidades de crédito deben empezar a asumir una parte del riesgo de lo que es su negocio financiero y pechar con la nulidad declarada de algunos de sus privilegios históricos: que no todo se puede garantizar, que no todo se puede reclamar ejecutivamente, que tras la nulidad no perdura el privilegio. Forzar el ordenamiento jurídico para proteger prácticas bancarias, al margen de la configuración de las garantías y de su ejecutividad, es un fraude de ley, una manera de sortear las prohibiciones instituidas, como es la de abusividad en la legislación protectora de los consumidores y usuarios.

Ello es una demostración más de que queda margen para seguir depurando los contratos bancarios de sus abusividades ya declaradas por los Tribunales, y de empezar a cuestionar todas las prácticas bancarias que, ante el sentimiento de justicia de los consumidores y usuarios, convendría fuesen declaradas contrarias a Derecho.

Escrito por: Carlo E. Gervasoni

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